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Table of Contents
Section 1: What is a Personal Trainer?
Section 2: Making a Great First Impression
Section 3: Listening Skills
Section 4: Scope of Practice
Have good posture and confidence:
• Shoulders back
• Head up
• Firm handshake
• Clean, modest athletic clothing
• Clothing fits appropriately
• Hair well kept
• Fresh smelling/no body odor
• Good physical shape
• Be polite
• Maintain eye contact
• Ask questions
• Use paraphrasing
• Speak clearly
Questioning: asking questions of a client in order to gain information and show interest.
Paraphrasing: expressing to a client an idea or their own statements using different words in order to gain clarity regarding the subject or express understanding.
Open Ended Question: a question that cannot be answered with a simple yes or no and is designed to get the client involved in the conversation.
Planning: the process of making fitness related plans with a client.
Tell-Show-Do Technique: a technique used widely to familiarize a client with an exercise in order to build their confidence and knowledge in a safe manner. It includes explaining proper form of an exercise, showing them, and then allowing them to attempt the exercise with your supervision.
Any deviance from these rules without proper certification or licensing can open the trainer to criminal and financial liability for any damage that comes from the deviation.
Personal trainers do not prescribe specific meal plans, supplementation or diet plans. If meal plans are desired a personal trainer can design a general plan based on the MyPyramid Food Guidelines system or refer client to Nutrition Consultant or Registered Dietitian for further information.
Each chapter review quiz contains questions from the final exam to help you prepare.
2. Statements like, "I understand, 135 feels like your ideal weight." Is an example of which listening skill?
3. Which is an example of the Tell-Show-Do technique used in training?
4. Which of the following is within a personal trainer's scope of practice?
5. Which method of handling soft-tissue injuries is within the personal trainer's scope of practice?
Section 1: Common Forms
Section 2: Client Trainer Relationship
Section 3: Motivation
Next we will take a look at some of the most common forms you will encounter.
The PAR-Q has been designed to identify the small number of adults for whom physical activity may be inappropriate or those who should have medical advice concerning the type of activity most suitable for them.
The personal training health questionnaire is not a full medical history. You should also ask about: surgeries your client may have had, any broken bones, joint or muscle pain.
Next we will take a look at each stage and what you can expect as you traverse them.
• First impressions using non-verbal and verbal communication skills.
• Creating an early foundation of trust and respect.
• Clients perceived concerns are taken seriously.
• Client senses trainer is knowledgeable, professional, and helpful.
• Trainer is learning about client’s health and fitness goals as well as limitations.
• Trainer is learning about client’s likes/dislikes and past experiences with fitness.
• Trainer is demonstrating their listening skills through verbal and non-verbal communication.
• Trainer is using PAR-Q or other Health History Forms to gather and document information.
• Trainer is helping client identify specific and measurable goals:
• Process Goal: A goal which can be achieved in the process of achieving a more measurable goal. [example] Client will jog on the treadmill 3 miles, 3 times each week.
• Product Goal: An easily measurable goal that can be easily tracked. For example, client will lose 15lbs.
• Formulating a plan.
• Discussing in detail an exercise plan and adjusting based around client’s needs, likes, and dislikes.
• Trainer is using motivational monitoring.
• Trainer is identifying how their client learns best and making adaptions to teach effectively.
• Trainer is reinforcing positive behavior and good form.
• Trainer is correcting negative behavior and bad form.
• Trainer must continue to promote the notion that exercise and health is a priority.
• Trainers goal is for the client to stick to an exercise routine.
Your reason for motivating your client is to create this belief within them. To reinforce this you will use reassuring and encouraging statements regarding their current progress and future goals. As their skills and progress develop through your guidance they will begin to believe in themselves and see that their goals are achievable.
Most clients will have this kind of motivation. They are seeking a feeling within themselves that they can only achieve through fitness. Through talking with your client you will quickly discover what it is that drives them to start training. Tap into this motivation and you will see the change it brings about in their attitude during the routine.
3. The PAR-Q has been designed to identify the small number of adults for whom physical activity may be inappropriate or those who should have medical advice concerning the type of activity most suitable for them.
4. You are meeting with a new client today. They will most likely be evaluating you as a trainer through both your verbal and non-verbal communication. What stage of the client-trainer relationship are you in?
5. Which of the following terms is the belief in one's capability to engage successfully in a behavior?
Section 1: Using an AED
Section 2: Seizures, Diabetes, and Falls
Section 3: High Risk Clients
In this chapter we will take a look at some of the most common emergencies that you may encounter as well as how to use an AED if necessary.
1. Turn on the AED and follow the visual and/or audio prompts.
2. Open the person's shirt and wipe his or her bare chest dry. If the person is wearing any medication patches, you should use a gloved (if possible) hand to remove the patches before wiping the person's chest.
3. Attach the AED pads, and plug in the connector (if necessary).
5. Push the "analyze" button (if necessary) and allow the AED to analyze the person's heart rhythm.
6. If the AED recommends that you deliver a shock to the person, make sure that no one, including you, is touching the person – and tell everyone to "stand clear." Once clear, press the "shock" button.
7. Begin CPR after delivering the shock. Or, if no shock is advised, begin CPR. Perform 2 minutes (about 5 cycles) of CPR and continue to follow the AED's prompts. If you notice obvious signs of life, discontinue CPR and monitor breathing for any changes in condition.
• Protect the person from injury.
• Keep him or her from falling if you can, or try to guide the person gently to the floor.
• Try to move equipment or other objects that might injure the person during the seizure.
• If the person is having a seizure and is on the ground when you arrive, try to position the person on his or her side so that fluid can leak out of the mouth. But be careful not to apply too much pressure to the person's body.
• Do not force anything, including your fingers, into the person's mouth.
• Do not try to hold down the person. This can cause injury, such as a dislocated shoulder.
• Check the person for injuries.
• If you could not turn the person onto his or her side during the seizure, do so when the seizure ends and the person is more relaxed.
• If the person is having trouble breathing, use your finger to gently clear his or her mouth of any vomit or saliva. If this does not work, call for emergency help.
• Loosen tight clothing around the person's neck and waist.
• Provide a safe area where the person can rest.
• Do not offer anything to eat or drink until the person is fully awake and alert.
• Stay with the person until he or she is awake and familiar with the surroundings. Most people will be sleepy or confused after a seizure.
This condition develops over several days and if left untreated, can result in unconsciousness.
• warm, dry skin
• rapid pulse and breathing
• fruity, sweet breath and excessive thirst
• drowsiness, leading to unconsciousness if not treated.
• Call 911 for emergency help.
• Monitor and record vital signs – response, pulse and breathing.
• If the casualty loses consciousness, open airway and check breathing.
This condition is characterized by a rapidly deteriorating level of response.
• weakness, faintness or hunger
• confusion and / or irrational behavior
• sweating with cold, clammy skin
• rapid pulse
• palpitations and muscle tremors
• deteriorating level of response
• Help the casualty to sit and give them a sugary drink or food.
• If they have their own glucose gel, help them to take it.
• If they respond quickly, give them more food or drink and let them rest until they feel better.
• Help them to monitor their glucose levels and stay with them until they have fully recovered.
• If their condition doesn’t improve, call 911 and monitor their vital signs until help arrives.
• Stay with the client and call for help.
• Check the client’s breathing, pulse, and blood pressure. If the patient is unconscious, not breathing, or does not have a pulse, call 911 and start CPR.
• Check for injury, such as cuts, scrapes, bruises, and broken bones.
• If you were not there when the client fell, ask the client or someone who saw the fall what happened.
• If the client is confused, shaking, or shows signs of weakness, pain, or dizziness: Stay with the client until they are feeling better or medical help has arrived.
• DO NOT raise client’s head if they may have a neck or back injury.
• Watch the patient closely after the fall. You may need to check the person's alertness, blood pressure and pulse, and possibly blood sugar.
• Document the fall according to your gyms policies.
Hypertension: Certain medications taken as a result of hypertension may cause heat illness when exercising. Some medications, including diuretics, impair the body’s ability to regulate temperature. People with hypertension should extend the cool-down period of the workout and be monitored more frequently to ensure they are not overheated.
Bone Density: The amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone. It can be measured using a special x-ray called a quantitative computed tomogram.
Osteoporosis: Focus on weight bearing exercises but be extremely cautious of the weight being used and how frequently you are increasing their weight. Perform balance and postural exercises frequently. It is highly suggested that the client get a DEXA scan which shows what specific areas of the body are at a lower bone density thus at a higher risk.
1. In a situation where your client becomes unconcious and hits their head what action should you take?
2. Your client has Epilepsy and he begins having a seizure on the bench press. Which of the following actions should you take?
3. Your client is diabetic and begins to show signs of hypoglycemia during a training session. What action should you take?
4. Which disease creates a reduction in the density and quality of bone?
5. What should you do FIRST if a client suddenly falls to the floor during a session?
Section 1: Heart Rate Training
Section 2: Body Fat
Section 3: Basal Metabolic Rate
Section 4: V02 Max Test
The heart rate may be too fast (tachycardia) or too slow (bradycardia). The pulse is a bulge of an artery from waves of blood that course through the blood vessels each time the heart beats. The pulse is often taken at the wrist to estimate the heart rate.
Maximum Heart Rate: The basic way to calculate your maximum heart rate is to subtract your age from 220. For example, if you're 45 years old, subtract 45 from 220 to get a maximum heart rate of 175. This is the maximum number of times your heart should beat per minute during exercise.
Your client’s target heart rate will depend on what thier goals are. To find target heart rate you take 200 - age x .5 to .95 depending on the target heart rate category. For example: 220 - 45 x .6 (for 60%) = 105 BPM (beats per minute).
50-60% of MHR for general health
60-70% of MHR for weight loss
70-80% of MHR for aerobic fitness
80-95% MHR for anaerobic or high performance training
Overweight is a BMI of 27.3 or more for women and 27.8 or more for men. Obesity is a BMI of 30 or more for either sex (about 30 pounds overweight). A very muscular person might have a high BMI without health risks.
The thickness of these folds is a measure of the fat under the skin, also called subcutaneous adipose tissue. Skinfold thickness results rely on formulas that convert these numbers into an estimate of a person's percentage of body fat according to a person's age and gender.
DEXA Scan: the DEXA (duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scan provides one of the most highly accurate measurements of body composition available, registering fat and lean mass distribution throughout the entire body. It is capable of detailing overall, as well as regional, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass.
Hydrostatic: Hydrostatic underwater weighing, or hydrostatic testing, is a method of determining body composition (body fat to lean mass) that make up a person's total body density using Archimedes' Principle of displacement.
655 + (4.35 x weight in pounds) + (4.7 x height in inches) - (4.7 x age in years)
66 + (6.23 x weight in pounds) + (12.7 x height in inches) - (6.8 x age in year)
EXAMPLE: Your client is a male, 205lbs, 6’ 1” (73 inches) tall, and 24 years old.
6.23 x 205 = 1277
66 + 1277 = 1343
12.7 x 73 = 927
6.8 x 24 = 163
1,343 + 927 – 163 = 2,107
Your clients BMR is 2,107 calories
Total Daily Energy Expenditure, also known as TDEE will give you an accurate idea of how many calories a client is burning taking into account their daily activity.
These are the TDEE Variables according to the Harris Benedict Equation:
(BMR) x 1.2 = Sedentary (desk job & little formal exercise)
(BMR) x 1.3-1.4 = Light Activity (light daily activity & light exercise 1-3 days a week)
(BMR) x 1.5-1.6 = Moderately Active (moderate daily activity & moderate exercise 3-5 days a week)
(BMR) x1.7-1.8 = Very Active (physically demanding lifestyle & hard exercise 6-7 days a week)
(BMR) x1.9-2.2 = Extremely Active (athlete in endurance training or very hard physical job)
2,107 x 1.7 = 3,581 (TDEE)
In this situation, your client should be able to consume roughly 3,581 calories daily to maintain their current bodyweight. From here they would be able to increase or decrease their caloric intake to reach certain goals.
VO2 Max is a measure of your capacity to generate the energy required for endurance activities and is one of the most important factors determining your ability to exercise for longer than four to five minutes.
This test is a maximal test, which requires a reasonable level of fitness. It is not recommended for recreational athletes or people with health problems, injuries or low fitness levels.
1. An endurance athlete's resting heart rate is typically lower than that of an inactive individual
Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Proteins are essential components of the muscle, skin, and bones. Proteins are composed of branch chain amino acids.
Carbohydrates: Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principal types of nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Carbohydrates come in simple forms such as sugars and in complex forms such as starches and fiber.
Fat: Along with proteins and carbohydrates, one of the three nutrients used as energy sources by the body. Total fat; the sum of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can help reduce blood cholesterol when substituted for saturated fats in the diet.
Saturated Fat: A fat that is solid at room temperature and comes chiefly from animal food products. Some examples are butter, lard, meat fat, solid shortening, palm oil, and coconut oil. These fats tend to raise the level of cholesterol in the blood.
Vitamin B12: An essential factor in nucleic acid synthesis (the genetic material of all cells). Deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia, as can be seen in pernicious anemia.
Vitamin C: Ascorbic acid, important in the synthesis of collagen, the framework protein for tissues of the body. Deficiency leads to scurvy, characterized by fragile capillaries, poor wound healing, and bone deformity in children.
Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity to conduct electricity. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes.
Potassium: an essential dietary mineral and electrolyte that exists as a charged ion that is extremely important for normal cellular function.
4. Which of these dietary minerals exists as a charged ion that is extremely important for normal cellular function
5. One serving of which contains the HIGHEST amount of vitamin K?
Section 1: The Heart
Section 2: Blood Pressure
Section 3: Basic Functions
The blood flows from the systemic veins into the right atrium, thence to the right ventricle, from which it is pumped to the lungs and then returned into the left atrium, thence to the left ventricle, from which it is driven into the systemic arteries.
The right heart consists of the right atrium, which receives deoxygenated blood from the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps the deoxygenated blood to the lungs under low pressure.
The left heart, which consists of the left atrium, which receives oxygenated blood from the lung, and the left ventricle, which pumps the oxygenated blood out to the body under high pressure.
Normal blood pressure is below 120/80; blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89 is called "pre-hypertension," and a blood pressure of 140/90 or above is considered high while a systolic blood pressure of about 90 to 100 is considered low blood pressure.
The second (diastolic pressure) is measured before the heart contracts and is lowest. A blood pressure cuff is used to measure the pressure. Elevation of blood pressure is called "hypertension".
Long term aerobic exercise has shown to lower both the resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both hypertensive and normal individuals.
Anaerobic Threshold: the point when the body can no longer produce enough energy for the muscles with normal oxygen intake.
Motor Function: the ability of the cranial nerves to convey sensory and motor impulses.
1. Which chamber of the heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the body?
3. Of the following blood pressure measurements which would be considered at risk factor for cardiovascular disease?
5. What is the typical resting blood pressure response to long term aerobic exercise in a hypertensive individual?
Section 1: How Muscles Work
Section 2: Major Muscle Groups
Section 3: Types of Joints
Biomechanics: is the study of the mechanisms and function of biological systems and how internal and external forces affect the way the body moves.
Ligaments: Ligaments are bundles of connective tissue that connect one bone to an adjacent bone. The basic building blocks of a ligament are collagen fibers. These fibers are very strong, flexible, and resistant to damage from pulling or compressing stresses.
Muscle: A soft tissue made up of cells containing protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion.
Antagonistic Muscle: A muscle that opposes the action of another. For example, the biceps and triceps are antagonistic muscles. Other examples include, the chest and back, or quadriceps and hamstrings.
Concentric Contraction: The shortening of a muscle as it acts against resistive force (like a weight). For example, during a biceps curl, the biceps contract concentrically during the lifting phase of the exercise.
Isometric Contraction: The length of the muscle does not change as it generates force. For example, during a plank.
Eccentric Contraction: The motion of an active muscle while it is lengthening under load. Eccentric training is repetitively doing eccentric muscle contractions. When performing a biceps curl, the biceps is in an eccentric motion while lowering the weight back to the starting position of the exercise.
Deltoids: On either side of your pectoral muscles reside the deltoids, or shoulder muscles. These muscles are responsible for overhead lifting and rotating your arms. The deltoids form a sort of cap over your shoulder and encompass the front, side, and back of the shoulder.
Latissimus dorsi: Directly below the trapezius muscles are your latissimus dorsi, or lats. These muscles form the side of your back and are responsible for posture and pulling motions, such as opening a door or rowing a boat. Collectively your deltoids, trapezius, lats, and erector spinae represent the major muscle groups of your back.
Triceps: If the bicep contracts to bend your arm, then another muscle must contract to straighten it. Those muscles are the triceps, and they can be found in back of your upper arm. If you're arms are bent now, try placing a hand over the back of one arm. Now, straighten your arm and you'll feel your triceps muscle contract.
Hamstrings: Directly behind the quadriceps, in the back of the leg, are your hamstrings. The hamstrings are a pair of large muscles known as the biceps femoris and semitendinosus. The function of these muscles is to aid in walking or bending your legs.
Glutes: The final major muscle group belongs to the gluteus, or your rear end. The gluteus functions to help you walk, stand upright, and balance on two feet. Without the gluteus, walking on two legs would be very difficult if not impossible.
Ellipsoidal: Ellipsoidal joints, such as the joint at the base of your index finger, allow bending and extending, rocking from side to side, but rotation is limited.
Hinge: Hinge joints, like in your knee and elbow, enable movement similar to the opening and closing of a hinged door.
Saddle: The only saddle joints in your body are in your thumbs. The bones in a saddle joint can rock back and forth and from side to side, but they have limited rotation.
Section 1: Warm up and Cooldown
Section 2: Training Frequency
Section 3: Avoiding Plateaus
Section 4: Flexibility
Warm up: A period of time at the beginning of an exercise session when you perform a lower intensity version of the same or similar exercise you plan to do during your workout. A warm up is beneficial before a workout session. A warm-up should slightly fatigue the body.
Body Fluid: Replacing body fluid as it is lost is an important guideline to follow whether exercising in the heat or the cold. Exercise leads to a progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and is increased in proportion to the work rate and the environmental
If your client’s goal is to lose weight you will want to work up to more frequent workouts, often up to six or more days a week.
Keep in mind advanced weight lifters can safely be performing a strength training routine up to 6 days per week.
It can be described as a point where a person may have a decrease in performance and plateauing as a result from failure to consistently perform at a certain level or training load exceeds their recovery capacity. They cease making progress, and can even begin to lose strength and fitness.
Overtraining is also known as chronic fatigue, burnout, and overstress in athletes.
• Shorten or extend workout lengths • Adjust repetition range • Adjust type of sets • Adjust the amount of rest between sets • Take a week off strength training • Try using different types of equipment or use bodyweight training • Add intensity by adding more cardio to strength training routine • Add intensity by adding more strength training to their cardio routine • Get more sleep
The sit and reach test is a common measure of flexibility, and specifically measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. This test is important as because tightness in this area is implicated in lumbar lordosis, forward pelvic tilt and lower back pain.
Benefits of Flexibility:
•• Better posture •• Increased range of motion • • Pre-Habilitation of injury • • Effective preparation for strength training • • Increased blood flow to muscle When to avoid stretching:
• • Body is not properly warmed up • • area being stretched is or has recently been fractured • • Dealing with a joint that is experiencing swelling •• Dealing with a large array of injuries
Ballistic Stretching: Ballistic stretching is a form of passive stretching or dynamic stretching in a bouncing motion. Ballistic stretches force the limb into an extended range of motion when the muscle has not relaxed enough to enter it. It involves fast "bouncing" movements where a double bounce is performed at the end range of movement.
Active Stretching: Active stretching means you’re stretching a muscle by actively contracting the muscle in opposition to the one you’re stretching. You do not use your body weight, a strap, leverage, gravity, another person, or a stretching device. With active stretching, you relax the muscle you’re trying to stretch and rely on the opposing muscle to initiate the stretch.
Static Stretching: Static stretching means a stretch is held in a challenging but comfortable position for a period, usually somewhere between 10 to 30 seconds. Static stretching is the most common form of stretching found in general fitness and is considered safe and effective for improving overall flexibility.
2. Replacing body fluid as it is lost is an important guideline to follow whether exercising in the heat or the cold
3. Which training approach, when repeated frequently, is most likely going to lead to overtraining?
4. To avoid plateus, exercise programs should be adjusted on a regular basis
5. Your client has been training for 6 months. They are not seeing as many results as in the beginning and now lack encouragment. What action should you take to help them see results and avoid plateau?
Elliptical: An elliptical trainer or cross-trainer is a stationary exercise machine used to simulate stair climbing, walking, or running without causing excessive pressure to the joints, hence decreasing the risk of impact injuries.
Strength Training Machine: Uses cams and pulleys to place the greatest amount of resistance at the point where a particular muscle is in its strongest position, thus helping that muscle to develop to its fullest potential.
Dumbbell: If you have a strength imbalance, dumbbell exercises can help minimize this. Whereas one limb may do a bit more work with a barbell exercise (standing barbell press, for example) both limbs are forced to perform the same amount of work with the dumbbell equivalent.
Resistance Band: Resistance bands are very good to make strong arm bones and muscles. These bands improve your balance, reduce joints pain, improve speed of movement and make your body more elastic
Kettlebell: The kettlebell is a cast-iron or cast steel weight (resembling a cannonball with a handle) used to perform ballistic exercises that combine cardiovascular, strength and flexibility training.
1. Ellipticals are considered to be low impact cardio and toning equipment
2. A stationary bike uses cams and pulleys to place the greatest amount of resistance at the point where a particular muscle is in its strongest position
4. Exercise machine with a continuous belt, that allows one to walk or run in place. Walking or running on this machine is great exercise and puts less stress on the body than walking or running on a flat outdoor surface.
Section 1: Sets and Repetitions
Section 2: Target Muscle Exercise
Section 3: Methods of Exercise
Set: the number of cycles of reps that you complete.
For example, suppose you complete 15 reps of a bench press. You would have completed 1 set of 15 reps.
For example, you may perform three sets of 12 repetitions using 40 pounds for an exercise while taking a 60 second break in between sets for a total of 4 sets.
Secondly, a superset incorporates two different exercises, whereas a normal set has only one exercise.
Supersets are best for opposing muscle groups.
For example one may be performing bicep curls with 30lb dumbbells, upon exhaustion drop down to using 25lb dumbbells. Upon exhaustion using the 25lb dumbbells they may continue the drop set by then dropping to 20lbs dumbbells, performing as many reps as possible.
Power: 1-3 repetitions
Strength: 4-6 repetitions
Hypertrophy: 8-12 repetitions
Endurance: 15+ repetitions
Pectorals: Flat Barbell Bench Press, Flat Dumbbell Bench Press, Decline Dumbbell Bench Press, Decline Dumbbell Chest Fly, Incline Dumbbell Chest Press, Incline Dumbbell Chest Fly, Flat Dumbbell Fly, Cable Fly, Pushup, Incline Dumbbell Pullover, Machine Pec-Deck, Deep Chest Dips.
Trapezius: Barbell Shrug, Barbell Shrug Behind Back, Cable Shrug, Clean Shrug, Kettlebell High Pull, Scapular Pullup.
Latissimus dorsi: Straight Arm Pulldown, Barbell Bent Over Row, Dumbbell Bent Over Row, Pullup, Close-Grip Front Lat Pulldown, Cable Row, Biangular Lat Pulldown.
Triceps: Dip, Close-Grip Barbell Chest Press, Close-Grip Pushup, EZ-Bar Skull Crusher, Triceps Rope Pushdown, Triceps Rope Overhead Extension, Dumbbell Kickback, Dumbbell Single-Arm Extension, Machine Triceps Extension.
Calves: Seated Calf Raise, Standing Calf Raise, Leg Press Calf Raise, Donkey Calf Raise.
Core: Arms-high partial situp, Ab wheel rollout, Swiss ball crunch, Dip/leg raise combo, Leg raise, Plank, Pullup to knee raise, Swiss ball v-up and pass, V-up, Weighted situp, Half kneeling chop
Note: When performing a crunch never interlock the hands behind the head
In this section we will look at some of these methods and some terms related to them.
Strength Training: Is physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.
Plyometrics: Is an exercises technique in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time, with the goal of increasing power. It often includes explosive movements like jumping, sprinting, and other agile movements.
High-intensity interval training (HIIT): A form of interval training, it involves a cardiovascular exercise strategy with alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise and less intense recovery periods.
Hypertrophy-Specific Training (HST): A method of strength training intended to induce the fastest muscle growth, or hypertrophy, possible, without losing efficacy over an extended period of time.
1. A client performs four sets of four repetitions. Which training goal does this volume best address?
4. Your client is walking on a treadmill at a steady pace for 45 minutes, followed by riding bike at a steady pace for 45 minutes, this would be considered interval training
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