Welcome to the CEFA Personal Trainer Certification Course! This free online course is designed to prepare you for a career as a personal trainer and give you the knowledge you will need to pass the CEFA Personal Trainer Certification Exam.

Read through and study each chapter. When you are ready to take the exam you may do so an unlimited number of times for FREE. When you pass the exam with 70% or better you will have the option of purchasing your certification at that time.

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Table of Contents

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Chapter 1: Keys to Success

Chapter 2: Working with Clients

Chapter 3: Emergencies

Chapter 4: Client Assessment

Chapter 5: Nutrition

Chapter 6: The Human Body

Chapter 7: Muscles and Joints

Chapter 8: Training Concepts

Chapter 9: Equipment

Chapter 10: Exercises

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Section 1: What is a Personal Trainer?

Section 2: Making a Great First Impression

Section 3: Listening Skills

Section 4: Scope of Practice

Chapter Review

A Personal Trainer is a fitness professional involved in exercise prescription and instruction. They motivate clients by setting goals and providing feedback and accountability. Trainers also measure their client's strengths and weaknesses with fitness assessments.
Making a great impression when meeting a client for the first time is essential to laying the groundwork for a successful client trainer relationship. It will aid you in keeping long term clients as well as gaining new clients through word of mouth and by having a good reputation.

Have good posture and confidence:
• Shoulders back
• Head up
• Firm handshake
Professional appearance:

• Clean, modest athletic clothing
• Clothing fits appropriately
• Hair well kept
• Fresh smelling/no body odor
• Good physical shape

Communication:

• Be polite
• Maintain eye contact
• Ask questions
• Use paraphrasing
• Speak clearly
Utilizing good listening skills is key to ensuring that you undstand your client’s needs and goals. Make sure you have freed yourself of all distractions and devote your complete attention to your client. They will appreciate it more than you know.

Questioning: asking questions of a client in order to gain information and show interest.

Paraphrasing: expressing to a client an idea or their own statements using different words in order to gain clarity regarding the subject or express understanding.

Open Ended Question: a question that cannot be answered with a simple yes or no and is designed to get the client involved in the conversation.
Encouraging: giving a client support or confidence to boost their motivation and self esteem.

Planning: the process of making fitness related plans with a client.

Tell-Show-Do Technique: a technique used widely to familiarize a client with an exercise in order to build their confidence and knowledge in a safe manner. It includes explaining proper form of an exercise, showing them, and then allowing them to attempt the exercise with your supervision.
There is a highly specific scope of appropriate practice for each level of personal training education. Those who do not possess higher education levels and specific medical degrees and qualifications will want to be especially careful to adhere to the limitations of their chosen career.

Any deviance from these rules without proper certification or licensing can open the trainer to criminal and financial liability for any damage that comes from the deviation.
Personal trainers do not diagnose injury, disease or dysfunction. if there is a condition suspected a personal trainer must refer the client to the appropriate professionals.

Personal trainers do not prescribe specific meal plans, supplementation or diet plans. If meal plans are desired a personal trainer can design a general plan based on the MyPyramid Food Guidelines system or refer client to Nutrition Consultant or Registered Dietitian for further information.
Congratulations! You've completed Chapter 1 and are well on your way to becoming a CEFA Certified Personal Trainer. Now it's time to see what you've learned.

Each chapter review quiz contains questions from the final exam to help you prepare.
Chapter 1: Review Quiz

1.
Which of the following is an example of a good open-ended question?
Chapter 1: Review Quiz

2.
Statements like, "I understand, 135 feels like your ideal weight." Is an example of which listening skill?
Chapter 1: Review Quiz

3.
Which is an example of the Tell-Show-Do technique used in training?
Chapter 1: Review Quiz

4.
Which of the following is within a personal trainer's scope of practice?
Chapter 1: Review Quiz

5.
Which method of handling soft-tissue injuries is within the personal trainer's scope of practice?

Section 1: Common Forms

Section 2: Client Trainer Relationship

Section 3: Motivation

Chapter Review

There are several questionaires and forms that you will find yourself using during your career as a personal trainer. Some of them are less official and others are essential to protect you legally if something unfortunate were to happen during your training session with a client. They are also useful for gaining important information regarding your client so you can develop strategies for their training routines.

Next we will take a look at some of the most common forms you will encounter.
PAR-Q: The physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q) is a self-screening tool that can be used by anyone who is planning to start an exercise program. Fitness trainers or coaches often use it to determine the safety or possible risk of exercising for an individual based on their answers to specific health history questions.

The PAR-Q has been designed to identify the small number of adults for whom physical activity may be inappropriate or those who should have medical advice concerning the type of activity most suitable for them.
Health History: The main purpose of this form is to assess your clients health. You need to know whether your client has any immediate concerns that may affect their program.

The personal training health questionnaire is not a full medical history. You should also ask about: surgeries your client may have had, any broken bones, joint or muscle pain.
Informed Consent, Release and Assumption of Risk: This form states that the client is agreeing to participate in exercise testing and the training program that's developed as a result, and includes a release and assumption of the risk. You should have a client’s written consent before putting them through any routines.
When it comes to the client trainer relationship there are several distinct stages which you will go through with each client. It is important to know these stages so that you will know what to expect as you progress through the process of training new clients. With this knowledge you will be better prepared to navigate the steps to success with your clients.

Next we will take a look at each stage and what you can expect as you traverse them.
Stage 1- Rapport:

• First impressions using non-verbal and verbal communication skills.

• Creating an early foundation of trust and respect.

• Clients perceived concerns are taken seriously.

• Client senses trainer is knowledgeable, professional, and helpful.
Stage 2- Investigation:

• Trainer is learning about client’s health and fitness goals as well as limitations.

• Trainer is learning about client’s likes/dislikes and past experiences with fitness.

• Trainer is demonstrating their listening skills through verbal and non-verbal communication.

• Trainer is using PAR-Q or other Health History Forms to gather and document information.
Stage 3- Planning:

• Trainer is helping client identify specific and measurable goals:

•   Process Goal: A goal which can be achieved in the process of achieving a more measurable goal. [example] Client will jog on the treadmill 3 miles, 3 times each week.

•   Product Goal: An easily measurable goal that can be easily tracked. For example, client will lose 15lbs.

• Formulating a plan.

• Discussing in detail an exercise plan and adjusting based around client’s needs, likes, and dislikes.
Stage 4- Action:

• Trainer is using motivational monitoring.

• Trainer is identifying how their client learns best and making adaptions to teach effectively.

• Trainer is reinforcing positive behavior and good form.

• Trainer is correcting negative behavior and bad form.

• Trainer must continue to promote the notion that exercise and health is a priority.

• Trainers goal is for the client to stick to an exercise routine.
Finding what motivates your client and how to tap into that motivation is key not only their success but yours as well. It is important to know the most basic forms of motivation so that you may use that knowlegde to develop individual strategies for each of your clients. This will help them to achieve their goals regarding fitness and allow you to succeed as a personal trainer.
Self Efficacy: Believing in one’s capability to engage successfully in a behavior.

Your reason for motivating your client is to create this belief within them. To reinforce this you will use reassuring and encouraging statements regarding their current progress and future goals. As their skills and progress develop through your guidance they will begin to believe in themselves and see that their goals are achievable.
Extrinsic: Motivation that is driven by external sources such as money, fame, bonuses, and praise. A client may sometimes have this type of motivation, but it is less common when it comes to fitness. They may be training to become fit for a particular job, event, or to receive praise from someone. The trouble with this kind of motivation is that it is temporary and easily lost due to it residing outside of the person. You may tap into this motivation at the begining but it is important to guide them towards internal motivation so that they do not fall away when the external source of their motivation is no longer there.
Intrinsic: Motivation that is driven by internal sources such as curiosity, honor, power, acceptance, and independance.

Most clients will have this kind of motivation. They are seeking a feeling within themselves that they can only achieve through fitness. Through talking with your client you will quickly discover what it is that drives them to start training. Tap into this motivation and you will see the change it brings about in their attitude during the routine.
You've completed Chapter 2 and it's time to see what you've learned.
Chapter 2: Review Quiz

1.
What information does the Informed Consent form gather?
Chapter 2: Review Quiz

2.
What information does the Health History Questionnaire collect?
Chapter 2: Review Quiz

3.
The PAR-Q has been designed to identify the small number of adults for whom physical activity may be inappropriate or those who should have medical advice concerning the type of activity most suitable for them.
Chapter 2: Review Quiz

4.
You are meeting with a new client today. They will most likely be evaluating you as a trainer through both your verbal and non-verbal communication. What stage of the client-trainer relationship are you in?
Chapter 2: Review Quiz

5.
Which of the following terms is the belief in one's capability to engage successfully in a behavior?

Section 1: Using an AED

Section 2: Seizures, Diabetes, and Falls

Section 3: High Risk Clients

Chapter Review

During your career as a personal trainer there may come a time when an emergency situation arrises. If and when the situation presents itself it is important to be prepared for what you must do.

In this chapter we will take a look at some of the most common emergencies that you may encounter as well as how to use an AED if necessary.
How to Use an AED: these AED steps should be used when caring for a non-breathing child aged 8 or older who weighs more than 55 pounds, or an adult. After checking the scene and ensuring that the person needs help, you should ask a bystander to call 911 for help, then:

 1. Turn on the AED and follow the visual and/or audio prompts.

 2. Open the person's shirt and wipe his or her bare chest dry. If the person is wearing any medication patches, you should use a gloved (if possible) hand to remove the patches before wiping the person's chest.

 3. Attach the AED pads, and plug in the connector (if necessary).
 4. Make sure no one is, including you, is touching the person. Tell everyone to "stand clear."

 5. Push the "analyze" button (if necessary) and allow the AED to analyze the person's heart rhythm.

 6. If the AED recommends that you deliver a shock to the person, make sure that no one, including you, is touching the person – and tell everyone to "stand clear." Once clear, press the "shock" button.

 7. Begin CPR after delivering the shock. Or, if no shock is advised, begin CPR. Perform 2 minutes (about 5 cycles) of CPR and continue to follow the AED's prompts. If you notice obvious signs of life, discontinue CPR and monitor breathing for any changes in condition.
During a seizure:

• Protect the person from injury.
• Keep him or her from falling if you can, or try to guide the person gently to the floor.
• Try to move equipment or other objects that might injure the person during the seizure.
• If the person is having a seizure and is on the ground when you arrive, try to position the person on his or her side so that fluid can leak out of the mouth. But be careful not to apply too much pressure to the person's body.
• Do not force anything, including your fingers, into the person's mouth.
• Do not try to hold down the person. This can cause injury, such as a dislocated shoulder.
After a seizure:

• Check the person for injuries.
• If you could not turn the person onto his or her side during the seizure, do so when the seizure ends and the person is more relaxed.
• If the person is having trouble breathing, use your finger to gently clear his or her mouth of any vomit or saliva. If this does not work, call for emergency help.
• Loosen tight clothing around the person's neck and waist.
• Provide a safe area where the person can rest.
• Do not offer anything to eat or drink until the person is fully awake and alert.
• Stay with the person until he or she is awake and familiar with the surroundings. Most people will be sleepy or confused after a seizure.
Hyperglycemia - high blood sugar:
This condition develops over several days and if left untreated, can result in unconsciousness.

Symptoms:
• warm, dry skin
• rapid pulse and breathing
• fruity, sweet breath and excessive thirst
• drowsiness, leading to unconsciousness if not treated.

Treatment:
• Call 911 for emergency help.
• Monitor and record vital signs – response, pulse and breathing.
• If the casualty loses consciousness, open airway and check breathing.
Hypoglycemia – low blood sugar:
This condition is characterized by a rapidly deteriorating level of response.

Symptoms:

• weakness, faintness or hunger
• confusion and / or irrational behavior
• sweating with cold, clammy skin
• rapid pulse
• palpitations and muscle tremors
• deteriorating level of response

Treatment:

• Help the casualty to sit and give them a sugary drink or food.
• If they have their own glucose gel, help them to take it.
• If they respond quickly, give them more food or drink and let them rest until they feel better.
• Help them to monitor their glucose levels and stay with them until they have fully recovered.
• If their condition doesn’t improve, call 911 and monitor their vital signs until help arrives.
If a client falls:
• Stay with the client and call for help.
• Check the client’s breathing, pulse, and blood pressure. If the patient is unconscious, not breathing, or does not have a pulse, call 911 and start CPR.
• Check for injury, such as cuts, scrapes, bruises, and broken bones.
• If you were not there when the client fell, ask the client or someone who saw the fall what happened.
• If the client is confused, shaking, or shows signs of weakness, pain, or dizziness: Stay with the client until they are feeling better or medical help has arrived.
• DO NOT raise client’s head if they may have a neck or back injury.
• Watch the patient closely after the fall. You may need to check the person's alertness, blood pressure and pulse, and possibly blood sugar.
• Document the fall according to your gyms policies.
Diabetes: Any client with diabetes can experience hypoglycemia up to 48 hours after an exercise session, so it is vital to monitor glucose levels frequently after a workout. Post exercise, late-onset hypoglycemia (PEL) is defined as a reaction more than 4 hours after exercise. Clients with diabetes may exhibit symptoms from low blood sugar such has shakiness, dizziness, or a headache. Be prepared to stop your session and allow time for them to consume the sugar their bodies need.

Hypertension: Certain medications taken as a result of hypertension may cause heat illness when exercising. Some medications, including diuretics, impair the body’s ability to regulate temperature. People with hypertension should extend the cool-down period of the workout and be monitored more frequently to ensure they are not overheated.
Asthma: It is very important for a trainer to be aware of the triggers that their clients have, and minimize any exposure to them. This will reduce the frequency of attacks and ensure that the client remains safe during an exercise session. It is also important to ensure that an asthma inhaler is readily available in the case of an asthma attack.

Bone Density: The amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone. It can be measured using a special x-ray called a quantitative computed tomogram.

Osteoporosis: Focus on weight bearing exercises but be extremely cautious of the weight being used and how frequently you are increasing their weight. Perform balance and postural exercises frequently. It is highly suggested that the client get a DEXA scan which shows what specific areas of the body are at a lower bone density thus at a higher risk.
You've completed Chapter 3 and it's time to see what you've learned.
Chapter 3: Review Quiz

1.
In a situation where your client becomes unconcious and hits their head what action should you take?
Chapter 3: Review Quiz

2.
Your client has Epilepsy and he begins having a seizure on the bench press. Which of the following actions should you take?
Chapter 3: Review Quiz

3.
Your client is diabetic and begins to show signs of hypoglycemia during a training session. What action should you take?
Chapter 3: Review Quiz

4.
Which disease creates a reduction in the density and quality of bone?
Chapter 3: Review Quiz

5.
What should you do FIRST if a client suddenly falls to the floor during a session?

Section 1: Heart Rate Training

Section 2: Body Fat

Section 3: Basal Metabolic Rate

Section 4: V02 Max Test

Chapter Review

High performance or endurance athletes typically have a lower resting heart rate than inactive individuals. The heart rate is based on the number of contractions of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). The heart rate is based on the number of contractions of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart).

The heart rate may be too fast (tachycardia) or too slow (bradycardia). The pulse is a bulge of an artery from waves of blood that course through the blood vessels each time the heart beats. The pulse is often taken at the wrist to estimate the heart rate.
Heart Rate: The number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually per minute.

Maximum Heart Rate: The basic way to calculate your maximum heart rate is to subtract your age from 220. For example, if you're 45 years old, subtract 45 from 220 to get a maximum heart rate of 175. This is the maximum number of times your heart should beat per minute during exercise.
Target Heart Rate: the ideal number of heartbeats in a certain amount of time in order to achieve the level of exertion needed for cardiovascular fitness, specific to a person's age, gender, and physical fitness.

Your client’s target heart rate will depend on what thier goals are. To find target heart rate you take 200 - age x .5 to .95 depending on the target heart rate category. For example: 220 - 45 x .6 (for 60%) = 105 BPM (beats per minute).
The target heart rate training zones:

50-60% of MHR for general health

60-70% of MHR for weight loss

70-80% of MHR for aerobic fitness

80-95% MHR for anaerobic or high performance training
Body Mass Index: A key index for relating weight to height. Abbreviated BMI. BMI is a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by his or her height in meters squared. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) now defines normal weight, overweight, and obesity according to BMI rather than the traditional height/weight charts.

Overweight is a BMI of 27.3 or more for women and 27.8 or more for men. Obesity is a BMI of 30 or more for either sex (about 30 pounds overweight). A very muscular person might have a high BMI without health risks.
Skin Fold Measurements: The skinfold measurement test is one of the oldest and still most common methods of determining a person's body composition and body fat percentage. sThis test estimates the percentage of body fat by measuring skinfold thickness at specific locations on the body.

The thickness of these folds is a measure of the fat under the skin, also called subcutaneous adipose tissue. Skinfold thickness results rely on formulas that convert these numbers into an estimate of a person's percentage of body fat according to a person's age and gender.
Bioelectrical Impedance: Simple devices to estimate body fat, often using BIA, are available to consumers as body fat meters. These instruments are generally regarded as being less accurate than those used clinically or in nutritional and medical practice. They tend to under-read body fat percentage and are effected my many variables including recent exercise, water intake, and food intake.

DEXA Scan: the DEXA (duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scan provides one of the most highly accurate measurements of body composition available, registering fat and lean mass distribution throughout the entire body. It is capable of detailing overall, as well as regional, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass.

Hydrostatic: Hydrostatic underwater weighing, or hydrostatic testing, is a method of determining body composition (body fat to lean mass) that make up a person's total body density using Archimedes' Principle of displacement.
Your basal metabolic rate, also known as your BMR, is your minimum calorie expenditure rate, the rate at which you must expend calories in order to stay alive. Your BMR assumes you’re in the post-absorptive phase of digestion, meaning you aren’t actively digesting food. You’ll typically need to know your BMR when you design a weight-loss to plan so that you can predict your weight-loss rate. You can calculate your BMR from your age, height and weight by using a gender-specific formula.
Female BMR:
655 + (4.35 x weight in pounds) + (4.7 x height in inches) - (4.7 x age in years)

Male BMR:
66 + (6.23 x weight in pounds) + (12.7 x height in inches) - (6.8 x age in year)

EXAMPLE: Your client is a male, 205lbs, 6’ 1” (73 inches) tall, and 24 years old.

6.23 x 205 = 1277
66 + 1277 = 1343
12.7 x 73 = 927
6.8 x 24 = 163
1,343 + 927 – 163 = 2,107

Your clients BMR is 2,107 calories
Calculating TDEE:
Total Daily Energy Expenditure, also known as TDEE will give you an accurate idea of how many calories a client is burning taking into account their daily activity.

These are the TDEE Variables according to the Harris Benedict Equation:

(BMR) x 1.2 = Sedentary (desk job & little formal exercise)
(BMR) x 1.3-1.4 = Light Activity (light daily activity & light exercise 1-3 days a week)
(BMR) x 1.5-1.6 = Moderately Active (moderate daily activity & moderate exercise 3-5 days a week)
(BMR) x1.7-1.8 = Very Active (physically demanding lifestyle & hard exercise 6-7 days a week)
(BMR) x1.9-2.2 = Extremely Active (athlete in endurance training or very hard physical job)
Using our example client who’s BMR is 2,107 and is between Moderately Active and Very Active, you would calculate their TDEE as followed:

2,107 x 1.7 = 3,581 (TDEE)

In this situation, your client should be able to consume roughly 3,581 calories daily to maintain their current bodyweight. From here they would be able to increase or decrease their caloric intake to reach certain goals.
VO2 Max: Short for maximal oxygen uptake, is the measure of an individual’s maximum capacity to transport and utilize oxygen during exercise. Also known as aerobic capacity, VO2 max is usually expressed as liters of oxygen per minute.

VO2 Max is a measure of your capacity to generate the energy required for endurance activities and is one of the most important factors determining your ability to exercise for longer than four to five minutes.
Exercise is performed on an appropriate ergometer (treadmill, cycle, swim bench etc.). The exercise workloads are selected to gradually progress in increments from moderate to maximal intensity. Oxygen uptake is calculated from measures of ventilation and the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the expired air, and the maximal level is determined at or near test completion

This test is a maximal test, which requires a reasonable level of fitness. It is not recommended for recreational athletes or people with health problems, injuries or low fitness levels.
You've completed Chapter 4 and it's time to see what you've learned.
Chapter 4: Review Quiz

1.
An endurance athlete's resting heart rate is typically lower than that of an inactive individual
Chapter 4: Review Quiz

2.
By which formula can the target heart rate zone be found?
Chapter 4: Review Quiz

3.
If a client's BMI is over 35 they are considered obese
Chapter 4: Review Quiz

4.
What is Basal Metabolic Rate?
Chapter 4: Review Quiz

5.
Which of these is a factor of VO2 max?

Section 1: Macronutrients

Section 2: Vitamins

Chapter Review

Macro Nutrients: Fats, proteins and carbohydrates, the three nutrients used as energy sources by the body. The energy produced by fats is 9 calories per gram. Proteins and carbohydrates each provide 4 calories per gram.

Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Proteins are essential components of the muscle, skin, and bones. Proteins are composed of branch chain amino acids.

Carbohydrates: Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principal types of nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Carbohydrates come in simple forms such as sugars and in complex forms such as starches and fiber.
The body breaks down most sugars and starches into glucose, a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells. Complex carbohydrates are derived from plants. Dietary intake of complex carbohydrates can lower blood cholesterol when they are substituted for saturated fat.

Fat: Along with proteins and carbohydrates, one of the three nutrients used as energy sources by the body. Total fat; the sum of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can help reduce blood cholesterol when substituted for saturated fats in the diet.

Saturated Fat: A fat that is solid at room temperature and comes chiefly from animal food products. Some examples are butter, lard, meat fat, solid shortening, palm oil, and coconut oil. These fats tend to raise the level of cholesterol in the blood.
Vitamin A: Retinol. Carotene compounds responsible for transmitting light sensation in the retina of the eye. Deficiency leads to night blindness.

Vitamin B12: An essential factor in nucleic acid synthesis (the genetic material of all cells). Deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia, as can be seen in pernicious anemia.

Vitamin C: Ascorbic acid, important in the synthesis of collagen, the framework protein for tissues of the body. Deficiency leads to scurvy, characterized by fragile capillaries, poor wound healing, and bone deformity in children.
Vitamin K: An essential factor in the formation of blood clotting factors. Deficiency can lead to abnormal bleeding. Spinach is high in Vitamin K.

Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity to conduct electricity. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes.

Potassium: an essential dietary mineral and electrolyte that exists as a charged ion that is extremely important for normal cellular function.
You've completed Chapter 5 and it's time to see what you've learned.
Chapter 5: Review Quiz

1.
Proteins are composed of branch chain amino acids
Chapter 5: Review Quiz

2.
What Macronutrient contains 9 calories per gram?
Chapter 5: Review Quiz

3.
How many calories does 1 gram of protein contain?
Chapter 5: Review Quiz

4.
Which of these dietary minerals exists as a charged ion that is extremely important for normal cellular function
Chapter 5: Review Quiz

5.
One serving of which contains the HIGHEST amount of vitamin K?

Section 1: The Heart

Section 2: Blood Pressure

Section 3: Basic Functions

Chapter Review

Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. The heart is composed of specialized cardiac muscle, and it is four-chambered, with a right atrium and ventricle, and an anatomically separate left atrium and ventricle.

The blood flows from the systemic veins into the right atrium, thence to the right ventricle, from which it is pumped to the lungs and then returned into the left atrium, thence to the left ventricle, from which it is driven into the systemic arteries.
The heart is thus functionally composed of two hearts: the right heart and the left heart.

The right heart consists of the right atrium, which receives deoxygenated blood from the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps the deoxygenated blood to the lungs under low pressure.

The left heart, which consists of the left atrium, which receives oxygenated blood from the lung, and the left ventricle, which pumps the oxygenated blood out to the body under high pressure.
Blood Pressure: The pressure of the blood in the circulatory system, often measured for diagnosis since it is closely related to the force and rate of the heartbeat and the diameter and elasticity of the arterial walls.

Normal blood pressure is below 120/80; blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89 is called "pre-hypertension," and a blood pressure of 140/90 or above is considered high while a systolic blood pressure of about 90 to 100 is considered low blood pressure.
Blood pressure is produced primarily by the contraction of the heart muscle. It's measurement is recorded by two numbers. The first (systolic pressure) is measured after the heart contracts and is highest.

The second (diastolic pressure) is measured before the heart contracts and is lowest. A blood pressure cuff is used to measure the pressure. Elevation of blood pressure is called "hypertension".
Complications of high blood pressure include cardiovascular disease, heart disease, kidney disease, hardening of the arteries, eye damage, and stroke.

Long term aerobic exercise has shown to lower both the resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both hypertensive and normal individuals.
Respiratory System: The organs that are involved in breathing, including the nose, throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Also known as the respiratory tree.

Anaerobic Threshold: the point when the body can no longer produce enough energy for the muscles with normal oxygen intake.

Motor Function: the ability of the cranial nerves to convey sensory and motor impulses.
You've completed Chapter 6 and it's time to see what you've learned.
Chapter 6: Review Quiz

1.
Which chamber of the heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the body?
Chapter 6: Review Quiz

2.
Which of the following is a healthy blood pressure?
Chapter 6: Review Quiz

3.
Of the following blood pressure measurements which would be considered at risk factor for cardiovascular disease?
Chapter 6: Review Quiz

4.
A normal diastolic blood pressure is 80
Chapter 6: Review Quiz

5.
What is the typical resting blood pressure response to long term aerobic exercise in a hypertensive individual?

Section 1: How Muscles Work

Section 2: Major Muscle Groups

Section 3: Types of Joints

Chapter Review

There are many things that factor into how muscles function. Without all of these key elements working together the muscle could do nothing. In this section we will examine the mechanisims and body systems that allow a muscle to function properly.

Biomechanics: is the study of the mechanisms and function of biological systems and how internal and external forces affect the way the body moves.
Bones: The dense, semirigid, porous, calcified connective tissue forming the major portion of the skeleton of most vertebrates.

Ligaments: Ligaments are bundles of connective tissue that connect one bone to an adjacent bone. The basic building blocks of a ligament are collagen fibers. These fibers are very strong, flexible, and resistant to damage from pulling or compressing stresses.
Tendon: A tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments; both are made of collagen.

Muscle: A soft tissue made up of cells containing protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion.
Hypertrophy: Growth and increase of the size of muscle cells. The most common type of muscular hypertrophy occurs as a result of physical exercise such as weight lifting, and the term is often associated with weight training.

Antagonistic Muscle: A muscle that opposes the action of another. For example, the biceps and triceps are antagonistic muscles. Other examples include, the chest and back, or quadriceps and hamstrings.
Flexion: is decreasing the angle in a joint. An example of flexion would be the top of a biceps curl which is flexion around the elbow joint.

Concentric Contraction: The shortening of a muscle as it acts against resistive force (like a weight). For example, during a biceps curl, the biceps contract concentrically during the lifting phase of the exercise.

Isometric Contraction: The length of the muscle does not change as it generates force. For example, during a plank.
Extension: is increasing the angle in a joint. An example of flexion would be the bottom of a biceps curl which is extension around the elbow joint.

Eccentric Contraction: The motion of an active muscle while it is lengthening under load. Eccentric training is repetitively doing eccentric muscle contractions. When performing a biceps curl, the biceps is in an eccentric motion while lowering the weight back to the starting position of the exercise.
Core: Abdominal muscles, or abs, are found overtop your stomach. You'll notice that these muscles form the midsection of the body's front side. Their primary purpose is for sitting up and supporting your posture. To either side of your abdominal muscles are your obliques. The oblique muscles are used for twisting and turning your torso. Behind them are your erector spinae, or lower back muscles. These muscles assist with posture and lifting items. Together, the erector spinae, obliques, and abdominal muscles form your body's core or midsection.
Pectorals: Above your abdominal muscles, you'll find the muscles of your chest. These are known as pectoral muscles. Pectoral muscles are used for movements such as pushups, pushing open a door, or other similar motions.

Deltoids: On either side of your pectoral muscles reside the deltoids, or shoulder muscles. These muscles are responsible for overhead lifting and rotating your arms. The deltoids form a sort of cap over your shoulder and encompass the front, side, and back of the shoulder.
Trapezius: In the back, the deltoids yield to the trapezius. The trapezius muscles are the large muscles in the upper- and mid-back. They help you move your head and aid the upper back when lifting heavy objects.

Latissimus dorsi: Directly below the trapezius muscles are your latissimus dorsi, or lats. These muscles form the side of your back and are responsible for posture and pulling motions, such as opening a door or rowing a boat. Collectively your deltoids, trapezius, lats, and erector spinae represent the major muscle groups of your back.
Biceps: Biceps are the muscles that form the front of your upper arm. They help you make a curling motion, do pull-ups, or lift food to your mouth. Touch your ear and your bicep contracts to allow the motion to occur. It's important to note that muscles can only contract, or pull together.

Triceps: If the bicep contracts to bend your arm, then another muscle must contract to straighten it. Those muscles are the triceps, and they can be found in back of your upper arm. If you're arms are bent now, try placing a hand over the back of one arm. Now, straighten your arm and you'll feel your triceps muscle contract.
Quadriceps: The quadriceps, or thigh muscles, form the front part of your upper leg. These muscles are used for motions such as walking or kicking a ball.

Hamstrings: Directly behind the quadriceps, in the back of the leg, are your hamstrings. The hamstrings are a pair of large muscles known as the biceps femoris and semitendinosus. The function of these muscles is to aid in walking or bending your legs.
Calves: Your lower leg is composed of smaller, but important, muscles called the gastrocnemius and soleus. These muscles allow for motions such as pushing off for running/walking or standing on your tiptoes.

Glutes: The final major muscle group belongs to the gluteus, or your rear end. The gluteus functions to help you walk, stand upright, and balance on two feet. Without the gluteus, walking on two legs would be very difficult if not impossible.
Most of your joints are 'synovial joints'. They are movable joints containing a lubricating liquid called synovial fluid. Synovial joints are predominant in your limbs where mobility is important. Ligaments help provide their stability and muscles contract to produce movement. In this section we will look at some of the most common joints.
Ball and socket: Ball and socket joints, like your hip and shoulder joints, are the most mobile type of joint in the human body. They allow you to swing your arms and legs in many different directions.

Ellipsoidal: Ellipsoidal joints, such as the joint at the base of your index finger, allow bending and extending, rocking from side to side, but rotation is limited.
Gliding: Gliding joints occur between the surfaces of two flat bones that are held together by ligaments. Some of the bones in your wrists and ankles move by gliding against each other.

Hinge: Hinge joints, like in your knee and elbow, enable movement similar to the opening and closing of a hinged door.
Pivot: The pivot joint in your neck allows you to turn your head from side to side.

Saddle: The only saddle joints in your body are in your thumbs. The bones in a saddle joint can rock back and forth and from side to side, but they have limited rotation.
You've completed Chapter 7 and it's time to see what you've learned.
Chapter 7: Review Quiz

1.
The study of the biological systems and mechanisms is defined as?
Chapter 7: Review Quiz

2.
Ligaments attach muscle to bone
Chapter 7: Review Quiz

3.
What is muscle hypertrophy?
Chapter 7: Review Quiz

4.
The knee is which type of joint?
Chapter 7: Review Quiz

5.
The hip joint is what type of joint?

Section 1: Warm up and Cooldown

Section 2: Training Frequency

Section 3: Avoiding Plateaus

Section 4: Flexibility

Chapter Review

Proper warm up and cooldown are essential to prepare the body and mind for exercise. It helps to reduce injury and allows the body to work into and out of a training session.

Warm up: A period of time at the beginning of an exercise session when you perform a lower intensity version of the same or similar exercise you plan to do during your workout. A warm up is beneficial before a workout session. A warm-up should slightly fatigue the body.
Cooldown: is an easy exercise, done after a more intense activity, to allow the body to gradually transition to a resting or near-resting state. A Cool down is beneficial after a workout session.

Body Fluid: Replacing body fluid as it is lost is an important guideline to follow whether exercising in the heat or the cold. Exercise leads to a progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and is increased in proportion to the work rate and the environmental
Your frequency often depends on a variety of factors including the type of workout you're doing, how hard you're working, your fitness level, and your exercise goals. These goals and limitations can greatly vary based on fitness level, however this is a good guideline to follow when dealing with beginner to intermediate clients.

Chapter 8: Frequency of Training
Cardio: Depending on the cleint’s goal, guidelines recommend moderate exercise five or more days a week or intense cardio three days a week to improve your health.

If your client’s goal is to lose weight you will want to work up to more frequent workouts, often up to six or more days a week.
Strength Training: The recommended frequency here is 2-3 non-consecutive days a week (at least 1-2 days between sessions). Frequency, however, will often depend on the workouts being performed, because muscles should be worked at least 2 times a week. If you do a split routine, like upper body one day and lower body the next, your workouts will be more frequent than total body workouts.

Keep in mind advanced weight lifters can safely be performing a strength training routine up to 6 days per week.
Overtraining: When a person experiences stress and physical trauma from exercise faster than their body can repair the damage.

It can be described as a point where a person may have a decrease in performance and plateauing as a result from failure to consistently perform at a certain level or training load exceeds their recovery capacity. They cease making progress, and can even begin to lose strength and fitness.

Overtraining is also known as chronic fatigue, burnout, and overstress in athletes.
If your clients are keeping the same exercise routine for an extended period of time they will undoubtedly experience plateaus. Here are some tips to help clients avoid hitting plateaus to keep working towards achieving their fitness goals.

•  Shorten or extend workout lengths • Adjust repetition range • Adjust type of sets • Adjust the amount of rest between sets • Take a week off strength training • Try using different types of equipment or use bodyweight training •  Add intensity by adding more cardio to strength training routine • Add intensity by adding more strength training to their cardio routine • Get more sleep
It is important to include flexibility training as part of your clients’ regular fitness routines. Improved flexibility may enhance performance in aerobic training and muscular conditioning as well as in sport. There is scientific evidence that the incidence of injury decreases when people include flexibility training in their routines. It is a form of active relaxation that can improve both mental and physical recovery.
Testing Flexibility:

The sit and reach test is a common measure of flexibility, and specifically measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. This test is important as because tightness in this area is implicated in lumbar lordosis, forward pelvic tilt and lower back pain.
Chapter: Flexibility
Benefits of Flexibility:

••  Better posture ••  Increased range of motion • • Pre-Habilitation of injury • • Effective preparation for strength training • • Increased blood flow to muscle When to avoid stretching:

• • Body is not properly warmed up • • area being stretched is or has recently been fractured • • Dealing with a joint that is experiencing swelling ••  Dealing with a large array of injuries
Types of Stretching:

Ballistic Stretching: Ballistic stretching is a form of passive stretching or dynamic stretching in a bouncing motion. Ballistic stretches force the limb into an extended range of motion when the muscle has not relaxed enough to enter it. It involves fast "bouncing" movements where a double bounce is performed at the end range of movement.
Dynamic Stretching: Dynamic stretching is a form of stretching beneficial in sports utilizing momentum from form, and the momentum from static-active stretching strength, in an effort to propel the muscle into an extended range of motion not exceeding one's static-passive stretching ability.

Active Stretching: Active stretching means you’re stretching a muscle by actively contracting the muscle in opposition to the one you’re stretching. You do not use your body weight, a strap, leverage, gravity, another person, or a stretching device. With active stretching, you relax the muscle you’re trying to stretch and rely on the opposing muscle to initiate the stretch.
Passive (or relaxed) Stretching: Passive stretching means you’re using some sort of outside assistance to help you achieve a stretch. This assistance could be your body weight, a strap, leverage, gravity, another person, or a stretching device. With passive stretching, you relax the muscle you’re trying to stretch and rely on the external force to hold you in place. You don’t usually have to work very hard to do a passive stretch, but there is always the risk that the external force will be stronger than you are flexible, which could cause injury.

Static Stretching: Static stretching means a stretch is held in a challenging but comfortable position for a period, usually somewhere between 10 to 30 seconds. Static stretching is the most common form of stretching found in general fitness and is considered safe and effective for improving overall flexibility.
You've completed Chapter 8 and it's time to see what you've learned.
Chapter 8: Review Quiz

1.
A warm-up should slightly fatigue the body.
Chapter 8: Review Quiz

2.
Replacing body fluid as it is lost is an important guideline to follow whether exercising in the heat or the cold
Chapter 8: Review Quiz

3.
Which training approach, when repeated frequently, is most likely going to lead to overtraining?
Chapter 8: Review Quiz

4.
To avoid plateus, exercise programs should be adjusted on a regular basis
Chapter 8: Review Quiz

5.
Your client has been training for 6 months. They are not seeing as many results as in the beginning and now lack encouragment. What action should you take to help them see results and avoid plateau?

Section 1: Types of Equipment

Chapter Review

There are many types of equipment that you will use as a personal trainer. It is important to understand the function and purpose of each type available. This will allow you to train your client how to use the equipment safely and effectively to achieve their goals.
Treadmill: Exercise machine with a continuous belt, that allows one to walk or run in place. Walking or running on a treadmill is great exercise and puts less stress on the body than walking or running on a flat outdoor surface.

Elliptical: An elliptical trainer or cross-trainer is a stationary exercise machine used to simulate stair climbing, walking, or running without causing excessive pressure to the joints, hence decreasing the risk of impact injuries.
Stationary Bicycle: A stationary bicycle (also known as exercise bicycle, exercise bike, or exercycle) is a device with saddle, pedals, and some form of handlebars arranged as on a bicycle. A stationary cycle enables you to get your heart pumping without putting undue stress on your joints.

Strength Training Machine: Uses cams and pulleys to place the greatest amount of resistance at the point where a particular muscle is in its strongest position, thus helping that muscle to develop to its fullest potential.
Barbell: A barbell is used in weight training, Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting. The weight is fixed and stable, so the tool itself is less likely to deviate from a normal range of motion.

Dumbbell: If you have a strength imbalance, dumbbell exercises can help minimize this. Whereas one limb may do a bit more work with a barbell exercise (standing barbell press, for example) both limbs are forced to perform the same amount of work with the dumbbell equivalent.
Plate Loaded: One of the most appreciated advantages of plate loaded machines is the close resemblance to barbell/dumbbell training, but with reduced risk of injury due to the supportive structure, precise exercise patterns, and controlled movement ranges.

Resistance Band: Resistance bands are very good to make strong arm bones and muscles. These bands improve your balance, reduce joints pain, improve speed of movement and make your body more elastic

Kettlebell: The kettlebell is a cast-iron or cast steel weight (resembling a cannonball with a handle) used to perform ballistic exercises that combine cardiovascular, strength and flexibility training.
You've completed Chapter 9 and it's time to see what you've learned.
Chapter 9: Review Quiz

1.
Ellipticals are considered to be low impact cardio and toning equipment
Chapter 9: Review Quiz

2.
A stationary bike uses cams and pulleys to place the greatest amount of resistance at the point where a particular muscle is in its strongest position
Chapter 9: Review Quiz

3.
A weight resembling a cannonball with a handle
Chapter 9: Review Quiz

4.
Exercise machine with a continuous belt, that allows one to walk or run in place. Walking or running on this machine is great exercise and puts less stress on the body than walking or running on a flat outdoor surface.
Chapter 9: Review Quiz

5.
Dumbbell exercises can help minimize strength imbalances.

Section 1: Sets and Repetitions

Section 2: Target Muscle Exercise

Section 3: Methods of Exercise

Chapter Review

Repitition (Rep): the number of times you perform a specific exercise.

Set: the number of cycles of reps that you complete.

For example, suppose you complete 15 reps of a bench press. You would have completed 1 set of 15 reps.
Straight Set: Performing straight sets is the standard method for arranging your weight training workout. Straight sets require you to perform several sets using the same number of repetitions and using the same weight.

For example, you may perform three sets of 12 repetitions using 40 pounds for an exercise while taking a 60 second break in between sets for a total of 4 sets.
Super Set: A superset differs from a normal set in two ways. First of all, a superset is performed with little to no rest between sets, whereas you may rest up to 90 seconds between two normal sets.

Secondly, a superset incorporates two different exercises, whereas a normal set has only one exercise.

Supersets are best for opposing muscle groups.
Drop Set: Drop sets are essentially a technique where you perform an exercise and then drop (reduce) the weight and continue for more reps until you reach failure.

For example one may be performing bicep curls with 30lb dumbbells, upon exhaustion drop down to using 25lb dumbbells. Upon exhaustion using the 25lb dumbbells they may continue the drop set by then dropping to 20lbs dumbbells, performing as many reps as possible.
Pyramid Set: Pyramid training is a method of strength training in which you start with a lighter weight for a higher number of repetitions and, for each set, you increase the weight and decrease the repetitions. You can also do the reverse and start heavy, dropping the weight and increasing the reps for each set.
Staggered Set: A staggered set is when you perform a set of an exercise for one body part and immediately perform another set of an exercise for another body part. For example, perform a set of military press for shoulders and immediately perform a set of dips for triceps. The advantage of a staggered set is that you can allow one muscle group to recover, while you exhaust a different muscle group.
Depending on your client’s training goal, certain numbers of repetitions per set will be more beneficial. Here is a breakdown of ideal reps per set to reach the desired goal.

Power: 1-3 repetitions

Strength: 4-6 repetitions

Hypertrophy: 8-12 repetitions

Endurance: 15+ repetitions
Keep in mind many exercises work multiple muscle groups, so there may be some cross-over between exercises. It is important to understand what the primary targeted muscle group for an exercise is.

Pectorals: Flat Barbell Bench Press, Flat Dumbbell Bench Press, Decline Dumbbell Bench Press, Decline Dumbbell Chest Fly, Incline Dumbbell Chest Press, Incline Dumbbell Chest Fly, Flat Dumbbell Fly, Cable Fly, Pushup, Incline Dumbbell Pullover, Machine Pec-Deck, Deep Chest Dips.
Deltoids: Upright Cable Row, Front Barbell Raise, Cable Front Raise, Machine Shoulder Press, Leaning Dumbbell Lateral Raise, Cable Rear-Deltoid Fly, Arnold Dumbbell Press, Smith Machine Upright Row.

Trapezius: Barbell Shrug, Barbell Shrug Behind Back, Cable Shrug, Clean Shrug, Kettlebell High Pull, Scapular Pullup.

Latissimus dorsi: Straight Arm Pulldown, Barbell Bent Over Row, Dumbbell Bent Over Row, Pullup, Close-Grip Front Lat Pulldown, Cable Row, Biangular Lat Pulldown.
Biceps: Barbell Preacher Curl, Dumbbell Hammer Curl, Seated Dumbbell Concentration Curl, Wide Grip Standing Barbell Curl, Incline Inner Biceps Curl, Overhand Dumbbell Curl, Overhead Cable Curl.

Triceps: Dip, Close-Grip Barbell Chest Press, Close-Grip Pushup, EZ-Bar Skull Crusher, Triceps Rope Pushdown, Triceps Rope Overhead Extension, Dumbbell Kickback, Dumbbell Single-Arm Extension, Machine Triceps Extension.
Quadriceps: Barbell Box Squat, Plate-Loaded Leg Press, Barbell Front Squat, Leg Extension Hamstrings: Barbell Deadlift, Barbell Romanian Deadlift, Dumbbell Deadlift, Dumbbell Romanian Deadlift, Seated Hamstring Curl, Lying Hamstring Curl, Floor Glute-Ham Raise, Kettlebell One-Legged Deadlift, Barbell Sumo Deadlift.

Calves: Seated Calf Raise, Standing Calf Raise, Leg Press Calf Raise, Donkey Calf Raise.
Glutes: Hip Thrust, Single-Leg Hip Thrust, Barbell Hip Thrust, Barbell Deadlift, Step Up, Barbell Lung, Dumbbell Lunge, Barbell Squat, Bulgarian Split, Kettlebell Swing, Cable Kickback, Goblet Reverse Lunge.

Core: Arms-high partial situp, Ab wheel rollout, Swiss ball crunch, Dip/leg raise combo, Leg raise, Plank, Pullup to knee raise, Swiss ball v-up and pass, V-up, Weighted situp, Half kneeling chop

Note: When performing a crunch never interlock the hands behind the head
There are many ways to train a client and new ways are being created every year. However, some of these methods have been around for years and it would seem the most effective ways seem to stay.

In this section we will look at some of these methods and some terms related to them.
Aerobic Exercise: Is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Aerobic Exercise refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism.

Strength Training: Is physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.
Isometric(Static): Is a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction (compared to concentric or eccentric contractions, called dynamic/isotonic movements).

Plyometrics: Is an exercises technique in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time, with the goal of increasing power. It often includes explosive movements like jumping, sprinting, and other agile movements.
Interval Training: Exercise which alternates between two activities, typically requiring different rates of speed and degrees of effort.

High-intensity interval training (HIIT): A form of interval training, it involves a cardiovascular exercise strategy with alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise and less intense recovery periods.

Hypertrophy-Specific Training (HST): A method of strength training intended to induce the fastest muscle growth, or hypertrophy, possible, without losing efficacy over an extended period of time.
You've completed Chapter 10 and it's time to see what you've learned.
Chapter 10: Review Quiz

1.
A client performs four sets of four repetitions. Which training goal does this volume best address?
Chapter 10: Review Quiz

2.
Of the following which are best for opposing muscle groups?
Chapter 10: Review Quiz

3.
Which muscle group does a leg extension work?
Chapter 10: Review Quiz

4.
Your client is walking on a treadmill at a steady pace for 45 minutes, followed by riding bike at a steady pace for 45 minutes, this would be considered interval training
Chapter 10: Review Quiz

5.
Which of the following is a plyometric exercise?
Congratulations on completing the CEFA Personal Trainer Certification Course! You now have all the knowledge and skills you will need to pass the CEFA Personal Trainer Certification Exam. You can begin the exam now or if you'd like you can go back and review.

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